Ever since the introduction of insulin in the treatment of diabetes mellitus by Banting and Best, extensive studies have been made to determine the exact mode of action of insulin. Insulin lowers the blood sugar and stimulates the formation of glycogen in the liver. Recently, Price, Cori and Colowick1 have found one fundamental function of insulin. They have demonstrated that the action of the enzyme hexokinase, which with adenosine triphosphate converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, may be inhibited in vivo or in vitro by anterior pituitary N. F.and that this inhibition can be countracted by insulin.
In contrast to the action of insulin, anterior pituitary results in hyperglycemia and glycosuria. Another antagonist to insulin in the maintenance of the blood sugar level is epinephrine, which increases the blood sugar by mobilizing sugar from glycogen. When insulin is given in excess, changes in distribution of lipids and loss of chromaffin substance
QUINN LH. EFFECT OF INSULIN HYPOGLYCEMIA ON THE CILIARY MUSCLE. Arch Ophthalmol. 1948;39(5):587-594. doi:10.1001/archopht.1948.00900020596003