THE OCULAR effects of choline and its derivatives are receiving increased attention not only as important metabolic and physiologic factors but also as therapeutic agents. Until recently use of these compounds in ophthalmology was limited largely to the miotic treatment of glaucoma; however, synthesis by Swan and White1 of choline esters with mydriatic and cycloplegic properties has greatly increased the possible therapeutic applications of the group. The ocular effects of the first choline to be known have not been fully investigated, nor have the possibilities for synthesis of new and more effective derivatives been fully exhausted; however, there are sufficient experimental data to provide a scientific basis for the clinical application of most of the presently known derivatives. These data are important to ophthalmologists, for, as compared with the commonly used drugs of the alkaloid series, the choline derivatives are unique in their chemical, physical and pharmacologic properties.
SWAN KC. OCULAR EFFECTS OF THE CHOLINE ESTERS. Arch Ophthalmol. 1949;42(6):709-725. doi:10.1001/archopht.1949.00900050720002