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October 1950


Author Affiliations

From the Wills Hospital and the Department of Bacteriology of Smith, Kline & French Laboratories.

AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1950;44(4):573-580. doi:10.1001/archopht.1950.00910020583009

NEWCASTLE disease, or avian pneumoencephalitis, is a highly communicable virus disease of fowls, which was first recognized as an entity in the Netherlands East Indies in 1926.1 Within the next few years scattered reports were issued from various parts of the Orient and Australia identifying similar disease processes in fowls and reporting them under colloquial or indigenous names.2 Doyle,3 in 1927 at Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, clearly established the etiology and nature of the malady during an outbreak in the chicken flocks of that area. The avian disease is usually characterized by a sudden appearance of respiratory signs, followed by neurologic disturbances, which, outside the United States, have led to a mortality of about 90 per cent.

Newcastle disease in fowls was first recognized in America about 19414 and subsequently has been identified in all of the states of the Union5 and most of the provinces of

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