THE LESIONS which can cause the Horner syndrome are so numerous and widespread that they are important in every medical and surgical specialty. In many instances the signs and symptoms associated with the Horner syndrome give the physician and surgeon an exact insight into the nature and localization of the disease process. However, in far too many instances the etiologic process remains obscure because of a paucity of other helpful symptoms.
An attempt is made in this paper to provide a system for localization of lesions causing the Horner syndrome. In addition, the numerous lesions responsible will be outlined. Considering the anatomic relations of the sympathetic chain involved, it is no wonder that so many systems may be implicated in association with interruption of the chain.
There is increasing evidence that there exist autonomic centers in the cortex. Barris1 demonstrated constriction of the pupil on stimulation of the peristriate
JAFFE NS. LOCALIZATION OF LESIONS CAUSING HORNER'S SYNDROME. AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1950;44(5):710-728. doi:10.1001/archopht.1950.00910020722009