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August 1951


Author Affiliations

From the Department of Ophthalmology, New York University-Bellevue Medical Center.

AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1951;46(2):148-152. doi:10.1001/archopht.1951.01700020154004

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND  THE VALUE of colored drawings of the fundus oculi, both in medical teaching and in the recording of pathologic conditions, was well recognized in the 19th century. However, with the improvement in photographic equipment and films during the 20th century, it became feasible to supplant the earlier drawings with actual clinical photographs of the eyegrounds, first in black and white and later in color film.As. early as 1862, Noyes, in America, had made attempts to obtain photographs of the fundus. Similarly, G. Bagneries experimented with elaborate equipment in Nancy, France, in 1889. Shortly thereafter (1891), Gerhoff developed a technique of flare-free photographs by immersing the eye in a water chamber with a plane front of glass.Sigurd Hagen experimented with diascleral illumination, while Dimmer, in Vienna, obtained black and white fundus photographs with the use of cumbersome equipment.It was not until 1915, however, that Nordenson, at

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