IN AN EARLIER study,1 symptoms were described which resulted from experimental lesions at various sites within the pupillary light reflex pathways of cats. The present paper will discuss the clinical pupillary symptoms which result from pathological processes in the "first neuron" of the light reflex arc * and will attempt to correlate clinical observations with facts derived from experiments on cats and monkeys, with the aim of reconciling conflicting opinions held by clinicians on the subject. Such correlation will be seen to be possible after description of the basic species similarities and differences.
All pupillary symptoms were pupillographically recorded. The methods of pupillography have previously been described.† The pupillary reflexes to light and to darkness were studied, using "standard" or "low" intensity stimuli. All experimental conditions, such as dark adaptation, fixation (as far as possible), intensity and duration of the stimuli, and interval between stimuli, were standardized. Only those
LOWENSTEIN O. CLINICAL PUPILLARY SYMPTOMS IN LESIONS OF THE OPTIC NERVE, OPTIC CHIASM, AND OPTIC TRACT. AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1954;52(3):385-403. doi:10.1001/archopht.1954.00920050387006