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Article
October 1954

EFFECT OF CHANGES IN OSMOTIC PRESSURE OF BLOOD ON AQUEOUS HUMOR DYNAMICS

Author Affiliations

NEW YORK
From the Institute of Ophthalmology, Presbyterian Hospital, and from the Glaucoma Clinic, Institute of Ophthalmology, London; Director of Research, Sir Stewart Duke-Elder.

AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1954;52(4):571-582. doi:10.1001/archopht.1954.00920050573009
Abstract

THE OSMOTIC relation between blood and aqueous humor is a factor which plays an important and well-recognized part in governing the intraocular pressure.1 Duke-Elder2 and associates showed in 1938 that the aqueous is slightly hypertonic to blood; this observation was further elaborated by Duke-Elder3 and Davson4 and substantiated by Kinsey,5 In 1948 Duke-Elder and Davson3 wrote: "It may be that the maintenance of this osmotic gradient is of considerable importance in the mechanism of the intraocular pressure. This factor has not been fully explored." A unified concept for the maintenance of the intraocular pressure was proposed by Kinsey6 in 1950; here, again, emphasis was on the osmotic interrelationship of blood and aqueous humor. The attention of the above-mentioned investigators was focused mainly on the intraocular pressure, while other aspects of aqueous humor dynamics were not explored. The introduction of Grant's * aqueous outflow test

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