The subject of keratoconus is submerged in the literature of the development of contact lenses, which has appeared for the most part in foreign publications. The early history of contact lenses per se has been carefully reviewed in English by Obrig1 and others * up to and including 1938. In the interests of ready reference to keratoconus, some developments may be highlighted herewith.
The first effort toward the optical improvement of keratoconus dates back to 1889, when Kalt † designed a blown-glass, fluidless corneal lens without a scleral flange. Its success was limited, however, because of the poor optical qualities of the glass, difficulties in fitting, and the excessive weight of the lens. Zeiss ‡ and Müller § brought about a return to the more conventional fluid lens with the supporting scleral flange. There was a continuing effort to improve the lenses, both optically and physiologically. It was not until
ZEKMAN TN, KRIMMER BM, Wesley NK, Corral E. The Treatment of Conical CorneaIntroduction of A New Multicurve Fluidless Corneal Contact Lens. AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1955;54(4):481-488. doi:10.1001/archopht.1955.00930020487002