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This small book is a fairly technical discussion of how the distribution of the intensity of light within the retinal image can be determined. The first-order effects and roles played by out-of-focus images, diffraction, axial chromatic aberration, chromatic dispersion, small astigmatism, spherical aberration, and pupil size in this distribution are developed analytically. The consideration deals with point sources of light, the straight line boundary between light and dark areas, and luminous line objects. It is assumed at the outset that the simple distribution of light within the image can be described by the normal error-distribution curve. From this as a basis an "index of blur" is defined. Much of the book then is concerned with determining the variation of this index under the influence of the different factors listed above. The discussion of the characteristics of the retinal image due to diffraction alone in out-of-focus images is particularly interesting. Similarly,
Blur of the Retinal Image.. AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1956;56(4):638. doi:10.1001/archopht.1956.00930040646010