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July 1959

Peculiar Color Blindness in Peculiar People

Author Affiliations

Berkeley, Calif.
School of Optometry, University of California.

AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1959;62(1):13-32. doi:10.1001/archopht.1959.04220010017003

Introduction  When a gene for any of the sex-linked "red-green" color blindnesses finds expression in an ordinary male, it is only rarely that the defect it produces is anything but regular, i. e., with characteristics that vary within narrow limits and leave the defect easy to classify. Color blindness in females is subject to more variation, in proportion to the numbers affected at all. Most people who have only casual contacts with color blindness, for example, those who administer vocational screening tests without really understanding them, suppose vaguely that color-blind females are rare and perhaps accidental. They can hardly be blamed for imagining that each such female may have a unique defect.This is not the situation. But while many, and probably most, color-blind females are in no way "accidental" and have defects identical with those which the same genes would produce in males, the defectiveness of the small color-blind

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