The Möbius syndrome consists of congenital facial diplegia usually associated with bilateral abducens nerve palsy, underdeveloped jaw and tongue, clubfoot, deafness, and a host of minor congenital anomalies.5,7 Although A. von Graefe described a case of combined sixth and seventh nerve paralysis on a congenital basis in 1880, to Möbius went the honor of the eponym because of his reports and classification of congenital ophthalmoplegias in 1888 and 1895.2 A very comprehensive review article on this condition was written by J. L. Henderson.3 In it, he calls attention to the peculiar distribution of the facial palsy, which characteristically spares the lower muscles of the face (especially the platysma), but almost universally involves the upper muscles. Of his 61 cases, 75% showed abducens paralysis, 33% had oculomotor nucleus involvement, 33% hypoglossal affection, 30% clubfoot, 20% arm malformations, 13% chest muscle defects, and 10% mental deficiencies.
The basic pathology
SOGG RL. Congenital Facial Diplegia Syndrome of MöbiusA Case Report. Arch Ophthalmol. 1961;65(1):16-19. doi:10.1001/archopht.1961.01840020018004