Macroglobulinemia is a disease of the reticuloendothelial system in which the signs and symptoms are associated with an abnormal protein having a high molecular weight. The ocular complications in this disease are being reported with increasing frequency with the spectrum of retinal changes ranging from slight dilatation and fullness of veins, hemorrhages, and exudates to occlusion of the central vein, retinal edema, and exudative retinal detachment. Externally, segmentation and clumping of the red blood cells within conjunctival vessels may be seen. In reviews of the literature, the incidence of retinopathy ranges from 30% to 67%.1,2 Cagianut3 reported 13 of 20 patients were severely incapacitated because of visual impairment.
The ocular findings were first emphasized by Waldenström4 in his original report in 1944. Of 3 cases, the initial complaint in one patient was loss of vision due to a central vein occlusion, and the second had prominent dilated
ACKERMAN AL. The Ocular Manifestations of Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia and Its Treatment. Arch Ophthalmol. 1962;67(6):701-707. doi:10.1001/archopht.1962.00960020701002