That complete congenital absence of an extraocular muscle is a rare occurrence is suggested by the fact that Casten1 found fewer than 10 cases reported up to 1940. I have heard of no other cases since that time and therefore feel that it is worthwhile to reemphasize what beneficial and gratifying surgical results may be obtained in such cases even when the patient has lived as long as 46 years without treatment.
It was Hummelsheim2 who, in 1907, first recommended transplantation of functioning rectus muscles to help take the place of paralyzed or absent rectus muscles. In 1921 William Campbell Posey,3 in a discussion of anomalies of eye muscles, mentioned a case in which the inferior rectus muscle was found to be absent at operation. The patient was improved cosmetically by transplanting the lower halves of the medial and lateral rectus tendons to the usual inferior rectus
GILLER H. Congenital Absence of the Inferior Rectus MuscleA Case Report on Its Surgical Correction. Arch Ophthalmol. 1962;68(2):182-185. doi:10.1001/archopht.1962.00960030186008