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Over a century after it was first recognized ophthalmoscopically, papilledema still remains a perplexing problem. Even its most frequent causative agent, increased intracranial pressure, exerts its effect through means that are not explained satisfactorily. Most other causes are uncommon; among them might be mentioned low intraocular pressure, raised cerebral venous pressure, high arterial blood pressure, and disorders of the blood, such as anemia, macroglobulinemia, and polycythemia vera, either primary or secondary.
Another cause, pulmonary insufficiency, has come to the fore during recent years. Although a few articles on pulmonary insufficiency have appeared in the ophthalmic literature, most of the articles have been published in general medical journals where they are likely to have been overlooked by the majority of ophthalmologists. Worthy of attention is a contribution by Spalter and Bruce that was read at the meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology in October, 1963, and that is
R. CW. Papilledema. Arch Ophthalmol. 1964;71(4):454-455. doi:10.1001/archopht.1964.00970010470002