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Programming is an autoinstructional system that encourages the student to develop the ability to express complete concepts and perform stated tasks while discouraging rote memorization. The book, Refraction—A Programmed Text, is the first to use an entirely new approach to learning in this particular field. The course includes discussion of lenses, refractive errors, cycloplegics, tests, heterophoria, and even illustrative case histories. The student is given a fact, then it is followed by a question that uses this fact in a practical application. The answer given by the student is then checked against the correct answer subsequently shown. The material is thus built on an expanding solid base of facts. This book provides an excellent introduction, supplement, or review of a regular course in refraction and should be very valuable to ophthalmic residents, ophthalmic technicians, and orthoptists. Although the work does not replace standard textbooks on refraction, it does achieve its
L'Esperance FA. Refraction—A Programmed Text.. Arch Ophthalmol. 1966;75(3):451-452. doi:10.1001/archopht.1966.00970050453029