The congenital form of ocular motor apraxia was first described in 1952.1 Clinically, it is characterized by abnormality of horizontal ocular movements both on command and on following a moving object. The horizontal movements may be absent or defective. On visual attraction, there are peculiar jerking movements of the head with overshooting to compensate for the contralateral deviation of the eyes due to uncontrolled vestibulogenic influences. Once the fixation is attained in this way, the head turns back to the primary position in alignment with the eyes. Vertical rotation of the head or trunk produces contralateral deviation of the eyes. Absence of the fast phase of the optokinetic nystagmus is a common finding.
Contrasting with these abnormalities, random horizontal, as well as vertical, movements of the eyes, pupillary function, and visual acuity are usually present and normal.
The syndrome, as described, includes walking and reading difficulties considered to be
ROBLES J. Congenital Ocular Motor Apraxia in Identical Twins. Arch Ophthalmol. 1966;75(6):746-749. doi:10.1001/archopht.1966.00970050748005