The fluorescein angiographic features of venous obstruction affecting the macular region are presented. Angiography may be helpful in the diagnosis of macular edema secondary to chronic venous obstruction in the absence of retinal hemorrhages, differentiating hemorrhagic retinal infarction secondary to venous occlusion from other hemorrhagic lesions in the macula, and determining the degree of capillary and retinal damage secondary to chronic venous obstruction. Angiographic findings confirm the importance of the arteriovenous crossing as the site of venous obstruction.
Gass JDM. A Fluorescein Angiographic Study of Macular Dysfunction Secondary to Retinal Vascular DiseaseII. Retinal Vein Obstruction. Arch Ophthalmol. 1968;80(5):550-568. doi:10.1001/archopht.1968.00980050552002