The frequency of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in 152 patients with "mild" diabetes of long duration was 40%. Abnormally dilated and tortuous veins were more frequent in the patients with DR than in those without.
The prevalence of DR increased significantly with increasing age and duration of diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy was also more frequent in patients with poor control of diabetes, in those with elevated blood pressure and in those with a history of cerebrovascular accidents. The prevalence of DR was not significantly increased in individuals treated with oral antidiabetic agents, in those with a positive family history of diabetes, in patients with ischemic heart, peripheral vascular and renal disease, or in those with serum cholesterol elevation.
The significance of these findings is discussed in connection with previous reports in the literature.
Balodimos MC, Aiello LM, Gleason RE, Marble A. Retinopathy in Mild Diabetes of Long Duration. Arch Ophthalmol. 1969;81(5):660-666. doi:10.1001/archopht.1969.00990010662011