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The area of refraction can be a painstaking chore for the young ophthalmologist who has been oriented in diagnosing diseases with laboratory tests and treating his patients with medicines. Dr. Hartstein points out that the alien subject of refraction takes the place of the routine "scrapes and bruises of the generalist." Thus, it is his intent in writing this Socratean approach to turn this seemingly arduous task into a challenge and 'delight' for the resident.
In addition to the usual topics, which are well covered, the reader will find a chapter devoted to an evaluation of vision and learning disorders in children. The chapter is particularly devoted to testing preschool children and evaluating problems in visual perception. Another interesting chapter entitled "Experimental Refraction" introduces the trends of computers, lasers, and oculography in the future refractive examination.
There is an excellent review of elementary optics and lenses. Of historical note is
Putnoi D. Review of Refraction.. Arch Ophthalmol. 1972;88(3):354. doi:10.1001/archopht.1972.01000030356038