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Recently there has been a publication explosion of textbooks on refraction, which points to the fact that despite the rigid formulas there are various ways of practicing the art. This literally pocket-sized book gives the beginning resident the needed outline in approaching his first few patients.
While some purists may say that certain areas are too briefly covered, others will claim that by its very simplicity it does what other books fail to do, ie, to present clearly a simple but complete examination.
I found the discussion of the crosscylinder quite lucid and helpful in understanding the concept of refining axis and power. Tucked into this short text are helpful pointers culled from many hours of keen observation. For example, a patient who claims that his newly prescribed glasses do not give him the same depth of focus as they did in the ophthalmologist's office may be reading under too
Putnoi DW. A Primer on Refraction.. Arch Ophthalmol. 1972;88(5):577. doi:10.1001/archopht.1972.01000030579021