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This monograph in German is an up-to-date comprehensive review of the entire field of ocular electromyography. It includes an historical review of relevant material and carries the subject up to the present from the period of the monograph by Breinin, the papers by Papst and Esslen, and by Huber. The author discusses the anatomy and ultrastructure of extraocular muscle with a presentation of the problems implicit in the finding of slow and fast fibers in the extraocular muscle. There is a full discussion of technique and instrumentation, including the preparation of electromyographic needle electrodes, the quantitation of the electromyogram (EMG), and correlations of EMG with muscle biopsy specimens.
The author reviews normal motility in terms of innervational aspects and extensively discusses the varieties of ocular motility disturbances. There is a rather extensive discussion of myopathy and an account of the findings in the retraction syndrome. Of interest is the observation
Breinin GM. Die Ophthalmo-Elektromyographie.. Arch Ophthalmol. 1973;90(1):87. doi:10.1001/archopht.1973.01000050089026