Replacement of aqueous humor with air for a 30-minute interval produced distinct morphologic changes in the cells of the corneal endothelium of the rabbit eye. Two basic types of structural changes were noted and were labeled "explosions" or "nonexplosions" depending on the percent of cell membrane immediately bounding the involved area that appeared to be intact. The damage was observed and photographically recorded in situ with a modified specular reflection microscope. Neither the required mechanical manipulation of the anterior chamber nor the exchange of saline for aqueous humor produced similar structural alterations in the corneal endothelial cells.
Leibowitz HM, Laing RA. Corneal EndotheliumThe Effect of Air in the Anterior Chamber. Arch Ophthalmol. 1974;92(3):227-230. doi:10.1001/archopht.1974.01010010235012