• A hand-held optical system for presenting focused stimuli on known retinal areas by direct ophthalmoscopy is described. The optical system provides a time-modulated stimulus beam of variable dimension, retinal illuminance, wavelength, and polarization, and a steady background beam of variable retinal illuminance and wavelength. Both beams enter the patient's eye in maxwellian-view for precise control of the ratio of stimulus to background retinal illuminance. The stimulator-ophthalmoscope allows the examiner to compensate easily for variable fixation.
(Arch Ophthalmol 95:1881-1882, 1977)
Sandberg MA, Ariel M. A Hand-Held, Two-Channel Stimulator-Ophthalmoscope. Arch Ophthalmol. 1977;95(10):1881-1882. doi:10.1001/archopht.1977.04450100183025