• In a review of 432 choroidal and ciliary body melanomas, histopathologic evidence of orbital extension was found in 45 cases (10.4%). The occurrence of orbital extension was influenced mainly by the cell type (P <.05) and by the size of the choroidal mass (P <.001). Local orbital recurrence occurred in 23% of cases with evidence of extrascleral extension.
Survival rates were independent of cell type, pigmentation, and size and shape of the extension. Patients treated by exenteration had significantly better prognosis than nontreated patients or patients treated by chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or local excision (P =.0002). Early exenteration is the best treatment for choroidal melanomas with orbital extension.
(Arch Ophthalmol 95:2002-2005, 1977)
Shammas HF, Blodi FC. Orbital Extension of Choroidal and Ciliary Body Melanomas. Arch Ophthalmol. 1977;95(11):2002-2005. doi:10.1001/archopht.1977.04450110096010