• Abnormalities in the choroidal circulation developed in two patients with arteriovenous fistulae in the area of the cavernous sinus. Fluorescein angiography in both patients revealed delayed filling of their choroidal circulation. In the first patient, this was associated with a central serous detachment of the retina secondary to a retinal pigment epithelial defect. In the second patient, a large choroidal detachment and serous retinal detachment, which resolved spontaneously developed. High venous pressure, low mean arterial pressure, and subsequent tissue hypoxia are postulated to be the cause of the altered choroidal circulation. The possibility of occult dural arteriovenous fistulae should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with a choroidal detachment, proptosis, and a red eye.
Klein R, Meyers SM, Smith JL, Myers FL, Roth H, Becker B. Abnormal Choroidal CirculationAssociation With Arteriovenous Fistula in the Cavernous Sinus Area. Arch Ophthalmol. 1978;96(8):1370-1373. doi:10.1001/archopht.1978.03910060124005