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The third international symposium on orbital disorders was held in Amsterdam Sept 5 through 7, 1977. The majority of papers were devoted to modern diagnostic modalities for orbital disorders. Several excellent papers on echography were presented, including a detailed and inclusive summary of orbital echography by Dr Karl Ossoinig. A number of papers discuss the recent advances in computerized axial tomography for orbital disorder diagnosis and several compare the efficacy of this modality vs other diagnostic modalities. Several interesting papers on thyroid-related eye disease and its diagnosis and treatment were presented. The superiority of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone test in comparison with other blood studies were demonstrated. A number of studies on blowout fractures were presented, including several discussing the mechanism of injury. Also included in the proceedings are several fascinating papers on individual cases.
Anderson RL. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Orbital Disorders. Arch Ophthalmol. 1979;97(7):1372. doi:10.1001/archopht.1979.01020020096025