• The clinical specular microscope shows the morphological appearance of the endothelium in normal and abnormal corneas. This instrument resolves the endothelial mosaic of the normal cornea into a quasiregular pattern of contiguous cells having well-defined cell boundaries. Cell size varies over a wide range in a number of disorders, and endothelial cells may assume shapes that are substantially different from their usual hexagonal appearance. Cell boundaries are dark and most commonly appear as a straight, narrow line. However, other types of cell boundaries, collectively referred to as doubled boundaries, have been encountered. Cell boundaries normally intersect in a manner that results in three angles of intersection, each approximately 60°, but variations from this pattern are seen. A number of noncellular structures also can be seen in the endothelial zone.
Laing RA, Sandstrom MM, Leibowitz HM. Clinical Specular MicroscopyII. Qualitative Evaluation of Corneal Endothelial Photomicrographs. Arch Ophthalmol. 1979;97(9):1720-1725. doi:10.1001/archopht.1979.01020020288022