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March 1980

'Minified' Goldmann Applanating Prism for Tonometry in Monkeys and Humans

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison (Drs Kaufman and Davis); and the Department of Medical Pharmacology, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden (Dr Kaufman).

Arch Ophthalmol. 1980;98(3):542-546. doi:10.1001/archopht.1980.01020030538022

• The tip diameter of the standard Goldmann applanating prism was reduced from 7.0 mm to 4.0 or 4.5 mm, but the endpoint of intraocular pressure measurement—applanation of a circle of cornea having a diameter of 3.06 mm—was not changed. The "minified" tonometers exhibited standard mechanical calibration characteristics in three standard configurations. The 4.5-mm tonometer was calibrated for cynomolgus monkey eyes in vivo by open and closed stopcock manometry. By open stopcock manometry, between pressures of 4 and 70 mm Hg, IOP(tonometer) = 1.01 IOP(manometer) – 0.72, with very little scatter or curvature. During closed stopcock manometry, between pressures of 5 and 55 mm Hg, IOP(tonometer) = 1.07 IOP(manometer)– 1.32, again with very little scatter or curvature. The tonometer elevated manometric IOP by an average of about 7.5%; the percentage pressure elevation decreased slightly as pressure increased. The 4.0-mm tonometer was calibrated against a standard tonometer in living human eyes. Over the pressure range from 0 to 75 mm Hg, IOP(minitonometer) = 0.98 IOP(standard tonometer)+ 0.82, with very little scatter or curvature. Similar comparison of two standard tonometers showed a virtually identical relationship and scatter. We conclude that minified Goldmann tonometers provide accurate and reproducible measurements of IOP in cynomolgus monkey and human eyes.