• A large survey was conducted to identify patients with choroidal and ciliary body melanomas in whom preoperative evaluation for the presence of metastases was performed. Twenty-nine (2.47%) of 1,214 patients were found to have metastases prior to surgical manipulation of the globe. Liver function enzymes combined with liver-spleen scanning is the most effective means for screening for the presence of metastases in these patients and should be performed in all cases in which surgical manipulation of the globe is anticipated.
Wagoner MD, Albert DM. The Incidence of Metastases From Untreated Ciliary Body and Choroidal Melanoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 1982;100(6):939-940. doi:10.1001/archopht.1982.01030030947009