• Respiration and arterial pulse cause intraocular pressure to cyclically vary around a mean pressure. Both the respiratory and arterial pulse waves approximate sine waves, and we have represented the IOP cycle as the sum of sinusoidal pressure waves. A rapidly acting tonometer may record any portion of the IOP cycle. We have computed the probability that a single pressure measurement will lie within a given interval around mean IOP and the probability that the mean of several such measurements will lie within a given range of mean pressure. The probability that an IOP estimate will lie in a given range of mean IOP decreases as the IOP cycle amplitude increases but increases as the number of tonometric measurements averaged together increases.
Moses RA, Arnzen RJ. Instantaneous Tonometry. Arch Ophthalmol. 1983;101(2):249-252. doi:10.1001/archopht.1983.01040010251014