• A peculiar dilation and tortuosity of small retinal vessels within the arcuate areas of the retinal nerve fiber layer occurred in a series of patients with acute malnutritional optic neuropathy ("tobacco-alcohol amblyopia"). These evanescent vascular abnormalities may be caused by arteriovenous shunting. They seem to be specific indicators of the early phase of this disease.
Frisén L. Fundus Changes in Acute Malnutritional Optic Neuropathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1983;101(4):577-579. doi:10.1001/archopht.1983.01040010577009