• A retrospective analysis of 20 cases of orbital fistula in Shanghai showed the causes to be trauma with foreign-body retention, osteomyelitis, mucocele, and dermoid cyst. Half the patients were children younger than 10 years old. Cicatricial ectropion, ptosis, and extraocular motility disturbance constituted the common clinical findings. Treatment according to the various causes included surgical removal of the foreign body, oral administration of antibiotics combined with local irrigation, radical extraction of all the epithelium lining the fistula, and excision of the fistula.
Wang WJ, Li CX, Sebag J, Ni C. Orbital FistulaCauses and Treatment of 20 Cases. Arch Ophthalmol. 1983;101(11):1721-1723. doi:10.1001/archopht.1983.01040020723011