• A primate model for the study of Toxocara canis infection was created by intravitreal, periocular, systemic, and intracarotid injection of viable larvae in cynomolgus monkeys. The results were as follows: (1) Intravitreal larvae caused retinal hemorrhages, perivasculitis, mild vitritis, and retinal nodules. (2) Apparently viable larvae without inflammatory reaction were found in the vitreous, retina, and optic nerves up to nine months after intravitreal inoculation. (3) Other larvae were surrounded by an acute inflammatory granuloma or a chronic fibrotic granuloma, but they did not appear to be necrotic. (4) Toxocara canis larvae apparently had the ability to move through ocular tissue, to leave the site of tissue reaction, and to exit via the optic nerve. Viable larvae were found in the retina up to 15 months after inoculation. (5) Culture fluid containing Toxocara proteins stimulated a severe retinal vasculitis. Dead larvae caused little reaction. (6) Positive aqueous and vitreous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers were found in the most severely inflamed eyes, which often harbored live larvae.
Watzke RC, Oaks JA, Folk JC. Toxocara canis Infection of the EyeCorrelation of Clinical Observations With Developing Pathology in the Primate Model. Arch Ophthalmol. 1984;102(2):282-291. doi:10.1001/archopht.1984.01040030226032