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The publication of scientific articles offers rewards to their authors, including personal publicity, currency for advancement in an academic system, support for future grant applications or renewals, and the personal satisfaction that comes with the advancement of knowledge. These all provide appropriate motivations for investigative pursuits. While these inducements may lead to bias in the gathering and presentation of information, they are assumed to be present by most readers and reviewers. Another form of inducement to publication comes from a "proprietary" interest in the drug, instrument, device, or technique being studied. This, too, may create a bias or potential conflict of interest. The Archives has requested in the past that authors with a "commercial or proprietary interest" in a product indicate this in a footnote appended to submitted manuscripts. With this issue of the Archives, our instructions have been expanded to include disclosure of a financial interest owned by an
Sugar J. Conflicts of Interest and True Science. Arch Ophthalmol. 1987;105(3):331. doi:10.1001/archopht.1987.01060030051022