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April 1987

Cerebro-ocular Dysplasia-Muscular Dystrophy SyndromeReport of Two Cases

Author Affiliations

From the Institute of Pathology (Ms Heggie and Drs Grossniklaus and Roessmann) and Division of Ophthalmology (Dr Grossniklaus), University Hospitals of Cleveland; and the Departments of Pathology (Dr Chou) and Neurology (Dr Cruse), The Cleveland Clinic Foundation.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1987;105(4):520-524. doi:10.1001/archopht.1987.01060040090040

• Cerebro-ocular dysplasia-muscular dystrophy (COD-MD) syndrome is a rare disorder encompassing a triad of brain, eye, and muscle abnormalities. The principal central nervous system features are cerebral and cerebellar agyria-micropolygyria, cortical disorganization, glial-mesodermal proliferation within the leptomeninges, neuronal heterotopias, hypoplasia of nerve tracts, hydrocephalus, and, occasionally, encephalocele. Ocular abnormalities include microphthalmia, cataract, immature anterior chamber angle, retinal dysplasia with or without retinal detachment, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, optic nerve hypoplasia, and coloboma. Skeletal muscle findings include fiber splitting, variable fiber size, and endomysial fibrosis. Recent evidence has shown that COD-MD syndrome may be identical to the Walker-Warburg (also known as Warburg) syndrome. Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy is similar to the COD-MD and Walker-Warburg syndromes, although the ocular manifestations are less severe. We report the histopathologic findings in two siblings With multiple features of COD-MD syndrome.