• The Baltimore Eye Survey is a population-based study of ocular disorders conducted in East Baltimore, Md, designed to determine the prevalence and severity of vision loss and ocular disease and their relationships to socioeconomic and other risk factors. This survey comprised 5300 subjects (2911 whites and 2389 blacks). Visual impairment was associated with age, race, general health status, educational level, income, and employment status. An identified association of race with blindness and visual impairment was reduced, but not eliminated, after adjustment for these socioeconomic factors, indicating that socioeconomic status itself is an important determinant of visual impairment.
Tielsch JM, Sommer A, Katz J, Quigley H, Ezrine S. Socioeconomic Status and Visual Impairment Among Urban Americans. Arch Ophthalmol. 1991;109(5):637-641. doi:10.1001/archopht.1991.01080050051027