• Management of obstructions in the lacrimal drainage system would be greatly aided by improvements in the ability to visualize the blockages. We describe a new method of observation using miniature fiberoptics to view the entire lacrimal excretory system. We employed flexible endoscopes of fiberoptic bundles with outside diameters of from 0.5 to 0.7 mm. These endoscopes were inserted through the puncta and canaliculi. Sixteen patients were examined. A range of pathologic conditions were found, including slightly stenosed passages and severely destroyed canalicular mucosal lining. Our results indicate that this technique is feasible and useful in the diagnosis of lacrimal excretory disease.
Fein W, Daykhovsky L, Papaioannou T, Beeder C, Grundfest WS. Endoscopy of the Lacrimal Outflow System. Arch Ophthalmol. 1992;110(12):1748-1750. doi:10.1001/archopht.1992.01080240088037