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February 1995

Chromosome 19q Cone-Rod Retinal DystrophyOcular Phenotype

Author Affiliations

From the Departments of Clinical Ophthalmology (Drs Evans and Bird), Visual Sciences (Dr Fitzke), Electrophysiology and Psychophysics (Dr Arden), and Molecular Genetics (Dr Bhattacharya), Institute of Ophthalmology and Moorfields Eye Hospital, London; and the Department of Ophthalmology, Walton Hospital, Liverpool, England (Dr Duvall-Young).

Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;113(2):195-201. doi:10.1001/archopht.1995.01100020079033

Objective:  To describe the phenotype in a family with dominantly inherited cone-rod dystrophy with chromosome assignment to a 19q locus, and to correlate this with current classifications of this retinal dystrophy.

Design:  A detailed clinical examination including Goldmann perimetry was undertaken in all family members. Six members under the age of 30 years underwent dark-adapted electroretinography, color contrast-sensitivity measurement, dark-adapted static perimetry, and dark adaptometry.

Patients:  The study included 34 affected and 22 unaffected patients in four generations of a pedigree that manifested autosomal dominant cone-rod retinal dystrophy linked to a chromosome 19q locus by genetic linkage analysis.

Results:  Loss of visual acuity occurred in the first decade of life, onset of night blindness occurred after 20 years of age, and little visual function remained after the age of 50 years. Central and, later, peripheral retinal fundus changes were associated with central scotoma, pseudoaltitudinal field defects, and finally global loss of function. Psychophysical and electrophysiologic testing before the age of 26 years showed more marked loss of cone than rod function.

Conclusions:  The phenotype associated with this mutation does not fit well into previous subtypes of conerod dystrophy. Further studies will be needed to correlate specific genetic mutations in this group of conditions with the various clinical phenotypes.