To describe the clinical features of vasoproliferative tumors of the ocular fundus and to propose a comprehensive classification of these tumors.
A retrospective review of all cases that were diagnosed as acquired retinal hemangioma or vasoproliferative retinal tumor was conducted on the Ocular Oncology Service at Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa.
There were 129 vasoproliferative tumors in 113 eyes of 103 patients. The tumors were classified as idiopathic in 84 eyes (74%) and secondary to preexisting ocular disease in 29 (26%). Subclassification into solitary (88 eyes), multiple (17 eyes), and diffuse (eight eyes) involvement was made. Of the 84 eyes with idiopathic tumors, 73 (87%) had solitary tumors, five (6%) had multiple tumors, and six (7%) had diffuse tumors. The lesion was located in the inferior, inferotemporal, or temporal region of the fundus in 78% and developed within 6 mm of the ora serrata retinae in 88%. Associated vitreoretinal findings included intraretinal exudation (82%), secondary exudative retinal detachment (48%), vitreous cells (46%), vitreous hemorrhage (21%), preretinal macular fibrosis (31%), and macular edema (18%). Of the 29 eyes with secondary tumors, the tumor was solitary in 15 (52%), multiple in 12 (41%), and diffuse in two (7%). The most common preexisting ocular disease included intermediate uveitis (pars planitis) in eight eyes (28%), retinitis pigmentosa in six (21%), toxoplasmic retinitis in two (7%), toxocariasis in two (7%), retinochoroidal coloboma in two (7%), and traumatic chorioretinopathy in two (7%). Retinal pigment epithelial hyperplasia was a prominent feature that was adjacent to 58% of the secondary tumors. Overall, management of the 129 tumors consisted of observation in 63 (49%), cryotherapy in 54 (42%), laser photocoagulation in seven (5%), plaque radiotherapy in three (2%), and other modes of treatment in two (2%).
Vasoproliferative retinal tumors can be idiopathic, or they can develop secondary to congenital, inflammatory, vascular, traumatic, dystrophic, and degenerative ocular diseases. They can produce a variety of complications. Awareness and recognition of these tumors and differentiation from other retinal vascular tumors are important.
Shields CL, Shields JA, Barrett J, De Potter P. Vasoproliferative Tumors of the Ocular FundusClassification and Clinical Manifestations in 103 Patients. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;113(5):615-623. doi:10.1001/archopht.1995.01100050083035