P olymerase chain reaction was used to test for the presence of human papillomavirus in conjunctival squamous cell carcinomas from three young Africans with aggressive disease. Two of these patients had the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Test results for human papillomavirus were positive in all three cases.
Lewallen S, Shroyer KR, Keyser RB, Liomba G. Aggressive Conjunctival Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Three Young Africans. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114(2):215-218. doi:10.1001/archopht.1996.01100130209021