To estimate the incidence and prevalence of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMV-R) in late-stage human immunodeficiency virus type 1 disease.
The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, an ongoing 10-year study of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected homosexual men with semiannual visits and CD4+ cell testing.
Three hundred sixty-seven human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study who were receiving zidovudine and Pneumocystis carinii prophylaxis and who had CD4+ cell counts fall below 0.10×109/L(100/μL).
Main Outcome Measures:
Kaplan-Meier—type estimates for various longitudinal quantifications of incidence and prevalence of CMV-R were obtained.
Among these 367 individuals, cytomegalovirus disease developed in 103, of whom 73 (71%) had ocular complications. At 4 years after the first CD4 cell count (<0.1 10×109/L), the probability for these subjects to have (1) remained living without CMV-R was 11%, (2) died without experiencing CMV-R was 66%, (3) experienced CMV-R and be living was 6%, and (4) experienced CMV-R and died was 18%. During these 4 years, there was a 25% chance for the development of CMV-R and, on average, 0.211 person-years of CMV-R morbidity. Among those subjects in whom CMV-R developed, about 19% did have CMV-R before a CD4+ cell count of less than 0.05 ×109/L (<50/μL) was observed, and 81% had CMV-R after the CD4+ cell count reached this threshold.
These estimates may be relevant to current clinical practice and help in allocating resources and planning for treatment and prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus disease.
Hoover DR, Peng Y, Saah A, Semba R, Detels RR, Rinaldo CR, Phair JP. Occurrence of Cytomegalovirus Retinitis After Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immunosuppression. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114(7):821-827. doi:10.1001/archopht.1996.01100140035004