Attention has been repeatedly called to a special class of congenital deficiency of movement of the eye characterized by all or some of the following peculiarities:
1. Complete, or less often partial, absence of outward movement in the affected eye.
2. Partial, or rarely complete, deficiency of movement inward of the affected eye.
3. Retraction of the affected eye into the orbit when it is adducted.
4. A sharply oblique movement of the affected eye either up and in or down and in when it is adducted.
5. Partial closure of the eyelids (pseudo-ptosis) of the affected eye when it is adducted.
6. Paresis, or at least marked deficiency of convergence, the affected eye remaining fixed in the primary position while the sound eye is converging.
This condition has been described more or less adequately by various authors, Collins,15 Sinclair,9 Türk,10,14 Bahr,11 Friedenwald,6,22 and others;
Duane A. Congenital Deficiency of Abduction, Associated With Impairment of Adduction, Retraction Movements, Contraction of the Palpebral Fissure and Oblique Movements of the Eye. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114(10):1255-1256. doi:10.1001/archopht.1996.01100140455017