Ischemic disorders of the retina and optic nerve head, which constitute a common cause of visual loss, are usually seen in patients with atherosclerosis.
To test the hypothesis that serotonin, which is released when platelets aggregate, may produce vasospasm in atherosclerotic monkeys and, thus, may contribute to the ischemic disorders and that short-term dietary treatment of atherosclerosis causes the propensity to vasospasm to subside.
We studied the response of retinal and posterior ciliary circulation to serotonin in 18 atherosclerotic (25 eyes) and 5 normal (8 eyes) cynomolgus monkeys. The eyes were evaluated by color fundus photography and fluorescein fundus angiography. The eyes were examined under basal conditions and, at a different time, during the intravenous infusion of serotonin. In 6 of the 18 atherosclerotic animals, the evaluation was repeated 5 to 12 months after discontinuing the atherogenic diet (ie, the regression group).
Serotonin had no effect in normal monkeys. In 18 atherosclerotic monkeys, serotonin produced transient occlusion or delayed filling of the central retinal artery and/or posterior ciliary artery (PCA) in 9 eyes of 9 animals, involving the central retinal artery in 5, lateral PCA in 8, and medial PCA in 5, in various combinations. In 6 animals (6 eyes) of the regression group, the vasoconstrictor effect of serotonin was abolished completely, except in the medial PCA in 1 eye.
Serotonin, in the presence of atherosclerotic lesions, can cause transient, complete occlusion or impaired blood flow in the central retinal artery and/or PCA. We speculate that this mechanism may play a role in the development of ischemic disorders of the retina and optic nerve head. Discontinuing the atherogenic diet abolished or markedly improved the serotonin-induced vasoconstriction within a few months.
Hayreh SS, Piegors DJ, Heistad DD. Serotonin-Induced Constriction of Ocular Arteries in Atherosclerotic MonkeysImplications for Ischemic Disorders of the Retina and Optic Nerve Head. Arch Ophthalmol. 1997;115(2):220-228. doi:10.1001/archopht.1997.01100150222012