The uvea consists of the choroid, ciliary body, and iris, and inflammation of the uveal tract is termed uveitis. Nevertheless, uveitis is commonly used to more generally describe intraocular inflammation involving not only the uvea, but also the retina, vitreous, and sclera. Fifty years ago, infectious organisms such as syphilis and tuberculosis were thought to be the cause of most forms of uveitis.1 Since that time, many causes of uveitis have been described as infectious and noninfectious. Scientists have shown that the immune response plays a critical role in the development of infectious and noninfectious forms of the disease. With a more detailed understanding of the immune mechanisms leading to the development of uveitis, we are now able to develop new therapeutic approaches based on targeting various components of the immune response.
Whitcup SM, Nussenblatt RB. Immunologic Mechanisms of UveitisNew Targets for Immunomodulation. Arch Ophthalmol. 1997;115(4):520-525. doi:10.1001/archopht.1997.01100150522013