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Table.  
Results
Results
1.
Guzek  JP, Anyomi  FK, Fiadoyor  S, Nyonator  F.  Prevalence of blindness in people over 40 years in the Volta region of Ghana. Ghana Med J. 2005;39(2):55-62.
PubMed
2.
Abdull  MM, Sivasubramaniam  S, Murthy  GV,  et al; Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Study Group.  Causes of blindness and visual impairment in Nigeria: the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50(9):4114-4120.
PubMedArticle
3.
Heijl  A, Leske  MC, Bengtsson  B, Hyman  L, Bengtsson  B, Hussein  M; Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial Group.  Reduction of intraocular pressure and glaucoma progression: results from the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120(10):1268-1279.
PubMedArticle
4.
Ntim-Amponsah  CT, Winfried  MKA, Ofosu-Amaah  S.  Awareness and knowledge of glaucoma and other diseases associated with blindness in a Ghanian community. Niger J Ophthalmol. 2004;12(12):50-54.
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Research Letter
October 2013

Bridging the Language Barrier in Health Awareness

Author Affiliations
  • 1Agogo Presbyterian Eye Hospital, Agogo, Asante Akyem, Ashanti Region, Ghana
  • 2Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, England
  • 3Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, England
JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131(10):1367. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.4285

Awareness of diseases in African communities frequently correlates with the outward manifestation of the disease process. In ophthalmology, the leukokoria of cataract has given rise to several local terms for this cause of blindness. The second most common cause of blindness in these communities1,2 unfortunately does not have any observable signs to the lay public. A person with glaucoma is frequently unaware of the disease process (progressive visual field loss) until the very last stages. Therapy to prevent blindness from glaucoma has proven effective.3

In the Akan community in Ghana, Ntim-Amponsah et al4 showed that many ascribed loss of sight from glaucoma to kooko. Literally translated as hemorrhoids, kooko represents any disease considered better treated by traditional remedies.

To bridge the gap between public awareness and presentation/acceptance of therapy, health education will be key. We report a study investigating the use of a local word for glaucoma compared with the medical terminology. Ethical permission was given by the municipal ethics committee of Asante Akyem North, Ghana, and the ethics committee of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

Methods

Using an information sheet, we explained the disease to Prof Kwadwo Agyekum of the School of Linguistics in Accra, Ghana. He then created 3 Akan names for the disease in the language Twi.

  1. Seε aninhoma, meaning destroyer of the wires of the eye.

  2. Hunta frayε, meaning a hidden or silent blinding condition.

  3. Kum aninhoma, meaning a killer of the wires of the eye.

These names were pilot tested at Agogo Hospital near Kumasi among Akan patients from both the eye clinic and the general clinic. Using the information sheet, glaucoma was explained to 50 individuals. They were then asked to select the name that best fit their understanding of the condition and would help them remember the disease. Twenty-nine (57%) chose hunta frayε, 11 (23%) chose seε aninhoma, and 10 (20%) chose kum aninhoma.

A public health presentation was then made in 5 churches, 2 in Juansa-Dome and 3 in Nyaboo-Patrensa. Both villages are in the Asante Akyem North district of the Ashanti region in Ghana. These communities are rural and the people speak Twi, an Akan language. Prior to the presentation, a structured interview asked participants to list known causes of blindness and state what they know about glaucoma and hunta frayε. The health talk was then given. In Juansa-Dome, the Akan word hunta frayε was used as the disease name; in Nyaboo-Patrensa, the term glaucoma was used. Twenty-eight days after the talk, participants were contacted and the structured interview was repeated. Knowledge of glaucoma was assessed by an independent observer using an agreed-upon grading system and masked to the study group.

Results

The Table shows an extremely positive effect in awareness following the health presentation in both communities. Knowledge of the disease was retained better in Juansa-Dome, where the new Twi word hunta frayε was used for the disease (χ2 = 6.9; P = .03).

Discussion

To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of introducing of a new term for an ophthalmic disease. Our results suggest that a health talk raises awareness regardless of the term used, but knowledge of the disease is better retained when a local term is used.

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Article Information

Corresponding Author: Kennedy Opoku, Dip Ophthalmology, MSc, Agogo Presbyterian Eye Hospital, PO Box 27, Agogo, Asante Akyem, Ashanti Region, Ghana (kaopoku@yahoo.com).

Published Online: August 8, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.4285.

Author Contributions:Study concept and design: Opoku, Murdoch.

Acquisition of data: Opoku.

Analysis and interpretation of data: Opoku, Murdoch.

Drafting of the manuscript: Opoku, Murdoch.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Opoku, Murdoch.

Statistical analysis: Opoku, Murdoch.

Obtained funding: Opoku.

Administrative, technical, and material support: Opoku, Murdoch.

Study supervision: Opoku, Murdoch.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

References
1.
Guzek  JP, Anyomi  FK, Fiadoyor  S, Nyonator  F.  Prevalence of blindness in people over 40 years in the Volta region of Ghana. Ghana Med J. 2005;39(2):55-62.
PubMed
2.
Abdull  MM, Sivasubramaniam  S, Murthy  GV,  et al; Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Study Group.  Causes of blindness and visual impairment in Nigeria: the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50(9):4114-4120.
PubMedArticle
3.
Heijl  A, Leske  MC, Bengtsson  B, Hyman  L, Bengtsson  B, Hussein  M; Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial Group.  Reduction of intraocular pressure and glaucoma progression: results from the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120(10):1268-1279.
PubMedArticle
4.
Ntim-Amponsah  CT, Winfried  MKA, Ofosu-Amaah  S.  Awareness and knowledge of glaucoma and other diseases associated with blindness in a Ghanian community. Niger J Ophthalmol. 2004;12(12):50-54.
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