Guber and coauthors report rates of cataract development and refractive outcomes 10 years after intraocular collamer lens (ICL) implantation for myopia. In a retrospective study of 133 eyes of 78 patients undergoing ICL implantations, the rate of lens opacity development was 40.9% and 54.8% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Phacoemulsification was performed in 5 eyes (4.9%) and 18 eyes (18.3%) at 5 and 10 years, respectively. There was no significant increase in intraocular pressure until the 10-year follow-up when 12 eyes (12.9%) had developed ocular hypertension that required topical medication. This study suggests that the rates of cataract formation and ocular hypertension at 10 years after ICL implantation have important clinical implications.
Hwang and coauthors investigate the associations between outdoor air pollution and dry eye disease (DED) in a South Korean population-based cross-sectional study. Among 16 824 participants, higher ozone levels and lower humidity levels were associated with symptoms and diagnosis of DED. In one model, an increase in ozone levels of 0.003 ppm was associated with symptoms and diagnosis of DED, while a 5% increase in humidity levels was associated with decreased symptoms and diagnoses of DED. The authors concluded that higher ozone levels and lower humidity levels are associated with DED in this Korean population.
Because the Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread rapidly in northeastern Brazil and other parts of the Americas, de Paula Freitas and coauthors evaluate the ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed intrauterine ZIKV infection in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. In this case series, 29 infants with microcephaly with a presumed diagnosis of congenital ZIKV were recruited. Twenty-three of 29 mothers (79.3%) reported suspected ZIKV infection signs and symptoms during pregnancy. Of the 29 infants (58 eyes) examined, ocular abnormalities were present in 17 eyes (29.3%) of 10 children (34.5%). Bilateral findings were found in 7 of 10 patients presenting with ocular lesions, the most common of which were focal pigment mottling of the retina and chorioretinal atrophy in 11 of the 17 eyes with abnormalities (64.7%), followed by optic nerve abnormalities in 8 eyes (47.1%), bilateral iris coloboma in 1 patient (2 eyes [11.8%]), and lens subluxation in 1 eye (5.9%). These data suggest that congenital infection due to presumed ZIKV exposure is associated with vision-threatening findings.
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Recognizing that the burden and effect of diabetic complications on Chinese American individuals in the United States is not fully understood, Varma and coauthors determine the age- and sex-specific prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) overall and by severity, duration of diabetes, and treatment history in this group. Of the 4582 survey participants in Monterey Park, California, DR was present in 35.8% of people with diabetes. Macular edema was observed in 4.5%, and clinically significant macular edema was observed in 2.0%. This study suggests that the prevalence of DR in this cohort was relatively lower than studies of Chinese individuals in rural northern China or Latino individuals from Los Angeles County, California.
Highlights. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016;134(5):479. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.3232