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Figure.
Number of times cited (TC) per year after publication for articles selected from the 100 most-cited articles. The number to the left of each article indicates its rank in the citation classics list given in Table 2.

Number of times cited (TC) per year after publication for articles selected from the 100 most-cited articles. The number to the left of each article indicates its rank in the citation classics list given in Table 2.

Table 1. 
Screened Journals in Ophthalmology and Its Subspecialties
Screened Journals in Ophthalmology and Its Subspecialties
Table 2. 
One Hundred Citation Classics in Ophthalmology and Its Subspecialties
One Hundred Citation Classics in Ophthalmology and Its Subspecialties
Table 3. 
Journals in Which the 100 Citation Classics Were Published
Journals in Which the 100 Citation Classics Were Published
Table 4. 
Institutions of Origin of 2 Articles or More
Institutions of Origin of 2 Articles or More
Table 5. 
Authors With 2 Publications or More
Authors With 2 Publications or More
Table 6. 
Specific Fields and Topics of the 100 Citation Classics
Specific Fields and Topics of the 100 Citation Classics
1.
Garfield  E 100 citation classics from the Journal of the American Medical AssociationJAMA 1987;257 (1) 52- 59
PubMedArticle
2.
Thomson Scientific,  ISI Web of Knowledge: the new face of research http://scientific.thomson.com/webofknowledgeAugust 20, 2006
3.
Ferris  FL  IIIKassoff  ABresnick  GHBailey  I New visual acuity charts for clinical research. Am J Ophthalmol 1982;94 (1) 91- 96
PubMed
4.
Klein  RKlein  BEMoss  SEDavis  MDDeMets  DL The Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy, II: prevalence and risk of diabetic retinopathy when age at diagnosis is less than 30 years. Arch Ophthalmol 1984;102 (4) 520- 526
PubMedArticle
5.
Klein  RKlein  BELinton  KL Prevalence of age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology 1992;99 (6) 933- 943
PubMedArticle
6.
Quigley  HAAddicks  EMGreen  WR Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma, III: quantitative correlation of nerve fiber loss and visual-field defect in glaucoma, ischemic neuropathy, papilledema, and toxic neuropathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1982;100 (1) 135- 146
PubMedArticle
7.
Klein  RKlein  BEMoss  SEDavis  MDDeMets  DL The Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy, III: prevalence and risk of diabetic retinopathy when age at diagnosis is 30 or more years. Arch Ophthalmol 1984;102 (4) 527- 532
PubMedArticle
8.
Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration With Photodynamic Therapy (TAP) Study Group, Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with verteporfin: one-year results of 2 randomized clinical trials. TAP report. Arch Ophthalmol 1999;117 (10) 1329- 1345[published correction appears in Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118(4):488]
PubMedArticle
9.
Quigley  HA Number of people with glaucoma worldwide. Br J Ophthalmol 1996;80 (5) 389- 393
PubMedArticle
10.
Harding  JJDilley  KJ Structural proteins of mammalian lens: review with emphasis on changes in development, aging and cataract. Exp Eye Res 1976;22 (1) 1- 73
PubMedArticle
11.
Trokel  SLSrinivasan  RBraren  B Excimer laser surgery of the cornea. Am J Ophthalmol 1983;96 (6) 710- 715
PubMed
12.
Adamis  APMiller  JWBernal  MT  et al.  Increased vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the vitreous of eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 1994;118 (4) 445- 450
PubMed
13.
Machemer  RLaqua  H Pigment epithelium proliferation in retinal detachment (massive periretinal proliferation). Am J Ophthalmol 1975;80 (1) 1- 23
PubMed
14.
Heeger  DJ Normalization of cell responses in cat striate cortex. Vis Neurosci 1992;9 (2) 181- 197
PubMedArticle
15.
Pelli  DGRobson  JGWilkins  AJ The design of a new letter chart for measuring contrast sensitivity. Clin Vis Sci 1988;2187- 199
16.
Hee  MRIzatt  JASwanson  EA  et al.  Optical coherence tomography of the human retina. Arch Ophthalmol 1995;113 (3) 325- 332
PubMedArticle
17.
Sarks  SH Aging and degeneration in the macular region: a clinicopathological study. Br J Ophthalmol 1976;60 (5) 324- 341
PubMedArticle
18.
Palmer  SS Mitomycin as adjunct chemotherapy with trabeculectomy. Ophthalmology 1991;98 (3) 317- 321
PubMedArticle
19.
Bailey  ILLovie  JE New design principles for visual acuity letter charts. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1976;53 (11) 740- 745
PubMedArticle
20.
Apple  DJSolomon  KDTetz  MR  et al.  Posterior capsule opacification. Surv Ophthalmol 1992;3773- 116Article
21.
Bird  ACBressler  NMBressler  SB  et al. International ARM Epidemiological Study Group, An international classification and grading system for age-related maculopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Surv Ophthalmol 1995;39 (5) 367- 374
PubMedArticle
22.
Young  RW Visual cells and concept of renewal. Invest Ophthalmol 1976;15700- 725
23.
Holland  GNPepose  JSPettit  THGottlieb  MSYee  RDFoos  RY Acquired immune deficiency syndrome: ocular manifestations. Ophthalmology 1983;90 (8) 859- 873
PubMedArticle
24.
Bressler  NMBressler  SBFine  SL Age-related macular degeneration. Surv Ophthalmol 1988;32 (6) 375- 413
PubMedArticle
25.
Cunha-Vaz  JFaria de Abreu  JRCampos  AJ Early breakdown of blood retinal barrier in diabetes. Br J Ophthalmol 1975;59 (11) 649- 656
PubMedArticle
26.
Kelly  NEWendel  RT Vitreous surgery for idiopathic macular holes: results of a pilot study. Arch Ophthalmol 1991;109 (5) 654- 659
PubMedArticle
27.
Pepose  JSHolland  GNNestor  MSCochran  AJFoos  RY Acquired immune deficiency syndrome: pathogenic mechanisms of ocular disease. Ophthalmology 1985;92 (4) 472- 484
PubMedArticle
28.
Spector  AGarner  WH Hydrogen peroxide and human cataract. Exp Eye Res 1981;33 (6) 673- 681
PubMedArticle
29.
Steinberg  EPTielsch  JMSchein  OD  et al.  The VF-14: an index of functional impairment in patients with cataract. Arch Ophthalmol 1994;112 (5) 630- 638
PubMedArticle
30.
Quigley  HANickells  RWKerrigan  LAPease  METhibault  DJZack  DJ Retinal ganglion-cell death in experimental glaucoma and after axotomy occurs by apoptosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1995;36 (5) 774- 786
PubMed
31.
Bressler  NMTreatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration With Photodynamic Therapy (TAP) Study Group, Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with verteporfin: two-year results of 2 randomized clinical trials. TAP report 2. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119 (2) 198- 207
PubMed
32.
Gospodarowicz  DMescher  ALBirdwell  CR Stimulation of corneal endothelial cell proliferation in vitro by fibroblast and epidermal growth factors. Exp Eye Res 1977;25 (1) 75- 89
PubMedArticle
33.
Chylack  LT  JrWolfe  JKSinger  DM  et al. Longitudinal Study of Cataract Study Group, The lens opacities classification system III. Arch Ophthalmol 1993;111 (6) 831- 836
PubMedArticle
34.
Wise  JBWitter  SL Argon laser therapy for open-angle glaucoma: a pilot study. Arch Ophthalmol 1979;97 (2) 319- 322
PubMedArticle
35.
Gass  JD Idiopathic senile macular hole: its early stages and pathogenesis. Arch Ophthalmol 1988;106 (5) 629- 639
PubMedArticle
36.
Age-Related Eye Disease Research Group, A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss. AREDS report No. 8. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119 (10) 1417- 1436
PubMedArticle
37.
Puliafito  CAHee  MRLin  CP  et al.  Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology 1995;102 (2) 217- 229
PubMedArticle
38.
Kitazawa  YKawase  KMatsushita  HMinobe  M Trabeculectomy with mitomycin: a comparative study with fluorouracil. Arch Ophthalmol 1991;109 (12) 1693- 1698
PubMedArticle
39.
Quigley  HADunkelberger  GRGreen  WR Retinal ganglion-cell atrophy correlated with automated perimetry in human eyes with glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol 1989;107 (5) 453- 464
PubMed
40.
Abramson  DHEllsworth  RMKitchin  FDTung  G Second nonocular tumors in retinoblastoma survivors: are they radiation-induced? Ophthalmology 1984;91 (11) 1351- 1355
PubMedArticle
41.
Jabs  DAEnger  CBartlett  JG Cytomegalovirus retinitis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 1989;107 (1) 75- 80
PubMedArticle
42.
Skuta  GLBeeson  CCHigginbotham  EJ  et al.  Intraoperative mitomycin vs postoperative 5-fluorouracil in high-risk glaucoma filtering surgery. Ophthalmology 1992;99 (3) 438- 444
PubMedArticle
43.
Zimmerman  TJKaufman  HE Beta-adrenergic blocking-agent for treatment of glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 1977;95 (4) 601- 604
PubMedArticle
44.
Wilson  HRFerrera  VPYo  C A psychophysically motivated model for 2-dimensional motion perception. Vis Neurosci 1992;9 (1) 79- 97
PubMedArticle
45.
Sommer  AKatz  JQuigley  HA  et al.  Clinically detectable nerve fiber atrophy precedes the onset of glaucomatous field loss. Arch Ophthalmol 1991;109 (1) 77- 83
PubMedArticle
46.
Bourne  WMKaufman  HE Specular microscopy of human corneal endothelium in vivo. Am J Ophthalmol 1976;81 (3) 319- 323
PubMed
47.
Young  RW Pathophysiology of age-related macular degeneration. Surv Ophthalmol 1987;31 (5) 291- 306
PubMedArticle
48.
Smith  LEWesolowski  EMcLellan  A  et al.  Oxygen-induced retinopathy in the mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1994;35 (1) 101- 111
PubMed
49.
Seiler  TWollensak  J Myopic photorefractive keratectomy with the excimer laser: one-year follow-up. Ophthalmology 1991;98 (8) 1156- 1163
PubMedArticle
50.
AGIS Investigators, The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) 7: The relationship between control of intraocular pressure and visual field deterioration. Am J Ophthalmol 2000;130 (4) 429- 440
PubMedArticle
51.
Leske  MCChylack  LT  JrWu  SY The lens opacities case-control study: risk factors for cataract. Arch Ophthalmol 1991;109 (2) 244- 251
PubMedArticle
52.
Alm  AStjernschantz  JScandinavian Latanoprost Study Group, Effects on intraocular pressure and side effects of 0.005% latanoprost applied once daily, evening or morning: a comparison with timolol. Ophthalmology 1995;102 (12) 1743- 1752
PubMedArticle
53.
Camras  CBUS Latanoprost Study Group, Comparison of latanoprost and timolol in patients with ocular hypertension and glaucoma: a six-month, masked, multicenter trial in the United States. Ophthalmology 1996;103 (1) 138- 147
PubMedArticle
54.
Palestine  AGRodrigues  MMMacher  AM  et al.  Ophthalmic involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ophthalmology 1984;91 (9) 1092- 1099
PubMedArticle
55.
Sommer  ATielsch  JMKatz  J  et al.  Relationship between intraocular pressure and primary open-angle glaucoma among white and black Americans: the Baltimore Eye Survey. Arch Ophthalmol 1991;109 (8) 1090- 1095
PubMedArticle
56.
Klein  RKlein  BELinton  KLDeMets  DL The Beaver Dam Eye Study: visual acuity. Ophthalmology 1991;98 (8) 1310- 1315
PubMedArticle
57.
Kass  MAHeuer  DKHigginbotham  EJ  et al.  The Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study: a randomized trial determines that topical ocular hypotensive medication delays or prevents the onset of primary open angle glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 2002;120 (6) 701- 713
PubMedArticle
58.
Fantes  FEHanna  KDWaring  GO  IIIPouliquen  YThompson  KPSavoldelli  M Wound healing after excimer laser keratomileusis (photorefractive keratectomy) in monkeys. Arch Ophthalmol 1990;108 (5) 665- 675
PubMedArticle
59.
Quigley  HAAddicks  EMGreen  WRMaumenee  AE Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma, II: the site of injury and susceptibility to damage. Arch Ophthalmol 1981;99 (4) 635- 649
PubMedArticle
60.
Rubinfeld  RSPfister  RRStein  RM  et al.  Serious complications of topical mitomycin-C after pterygium surgery. Ophthalmology 1992;99 (11) 1647- 1654
PubMedArticle
61.
International Standardization Committee, Standard for clinical electroretinography. Arch Ophthalmol 1989;107 (6) 816- 819
PubMedArticle
62.
Dreyer  EBZurakowski  DSchumer  RAPodos  SMLipton  SA Elevated glutamate levels in the vitreous body of humans and monkeys with glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 1996;114 (3) 299- 305
PubMedArticle
63.
Kenyon  KRTseng  SCG Limbal autograft transplantation for ocular surface disorders. Ophthalmology 1989;96 (5) 709- 723
PubMedArticle
64.
Cousins  SWMcCabe  MMDanielpour  DStreilein  JW Identification of transforming growth factor beta as an immunosuppressive factor in aqueous humor. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1991;32 (8) 2201- 2211
PubMed
65.
Tielsch  JMSommer  AWitt  KKatz  JRoyall  RM Blindness and visual impairment in an American urban population: the Baltimore Eye Survey. Arch Ophthalmol 1990;108 (2) 286- 290
PubMedArticle
66.
Kattan  HMFlynn  HWPflugfelder  SC  JrRobertson  CForster  RK Nosocomial endophthalmitis survey: current incidence of infection after intraocular surgery. Ophthalmology 1991;98 (2) 227- 238
PubMedArticle
67.
Mitchell  PSmith  WAttebo  KWang  JJ Prevalence of age-related maculopathy in Australia: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 1995;102 (10) 1450- 1460
PubMedArticle
68.
Zimmerman  LEMcLean  IWFoster  WD Does enucleation of eye containing a malignant melanoma prevent or accelerate dissemination of tumor cells. Br J Ophthalmol 1978;62 (6) 420- 425
PubMedArticle
69.
Scott  AB Botulinum toxin injection into extraocular muscles as an alternative to strabismus surgery. Ophthalmology 1980;87 (10) 1044- 1049
PubMedArticle
70.
Kampik  AKenyon  KRMichels  RGGreen  WRde la Cruz  ZC Epiretinal and vitreous membranes: comparative study of 56 cases. Arch Ophthalmol 1981;99 (8) 1445- 1454
PubMedArticle
71.
Quigley  HADunkelberger  GRGreen  WR Chronic human glaucoma causing selectively greater loss of large optic nerve fibers. Ophthalmology 1988;95 (3) 357- 363
PubMedArticle
72.
Green  WREnger  C Age-related macular degeneration histopathologic studies: the 1992 Lorenz E. Zimmerman Lecture. Ophthalmology 1993;100 (10) 1519- 1535
PubMedArticle
73.
Watson  PStjernschantz  JThe Latanoprost Study Group, A six-month, randomized, double-masked study comparing latanoprost with timolol in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Ophthalmology 1996;103 (1) 126- 137
PubMedArticle
74.
Apple  DJMamalis  NLoftfield  K  et al.  Complications of intraocular lenses: a historical and histopathological review. Surv Ophthalmol 1984;29 (1) 1- 54
PubMedArticle
75.
Pavlin  CJHarasiewicz  KSherar  MDFoster  ES Clinical use of ultrasound biomicroscopy. Ophthalmology 1991;98 (3) 287- 295
PubMedArticle
76.
Quigley  HASanchez  RMDunkelberger  GRL’Hernault  NLBaginski  TA Chronic glaucoma selectively damages large optic nerve fibers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1987;28 (6) 913- 920
PubMed
77.
Klein  BEKlein  RSponsel  WE  et al.  Prevalence of glaucoma: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology 1992;99 (10) 1499- 1504
PubMedArticle
78.
Pallikaris  IGSiganos  DS Excimer laser in-situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy for correction of high myopia. J Refract Corneal Surg 1994;10 (5) 498- 510
PubMed
79.
Bignami  ADahl  D Radial glia of Muller in the rat retina and their response to injury: immunofluorescence study with antibodies to the glial fibrillary acidic (GFA) protein. Exp Eye Res 1979;28 (1) 63- 69
PubMedArticle
80.
Johnston  MCNoden  DMHazelton  RDCoulombre  JLCoulombre  AJ Origins of avian ocular and periocular tissues. Exp Eye Res 1979;29 (1) 27- 43
PubMedArticle
81.
Nussenblatt  RBPalestine  AGChan  CC Cyclosporin A therapy in the treatment of intraocular inflammatory disease resistant to systemic corticosteroids and cytotoxic agents. Am J Ophthalmol 1983;96 (3) 275- 282
PubMed
82.
Holly  FJLemp  MA Tear physiology and dry eyes. Surv Ophthalmol 1977;22 (2) 69- 87
PubMedArticle
83.
Hayreh  SSZimmerman  MBPodhajsky  PAlward  WL Nocturnal arterial hypotension and its role in optic nerve head and ocular ischemic disorders. Am J Ophthalmol 1994;117 (5) 603- 624
PubMed
84.
Machemer  Rvan Horn  DAaberg  TM Pigment epithelial proliferation in human retinal detachment with massive periretinal proliferation. Am J Ophthalmol 1978;85 (2) 181- 191
PubMed
85.
Skuta  GLParrish  RK  II Wound healing in glaucoma filtering surgery. Surv Ophthalmol 1987;32 (3) 149- 170
PubMedArticle
86.
Munnerlyn  CRKoons  SJMarshall  J Photorefractive keratectomy: a technique for laser refractive surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 1988;14 (1) 46- 52
PubMedArticle
87.
Attebo  KMitchell  PSmith  W Visual acuity and the causes of visual loss in Australia: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 1996;103 (3) 357- 364
PubMedArticle
88.
Verteporfin in Photodynamic Therapy Study Group, Verteporfin therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration: two-year results of a randomized clinical trial including lesions with occult with no classic neovascularization. Verteporfinin photodynamic therapy report 2. Am J Ophthalmol 2001;131 (5) 541- 560
PubMedArticle
89.
Bok  D Retinal photoreceptor-pigment epithelium interactions: Friedenwald Lecture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1985;26 (12) 1659- 1694
PubMed
90.
Littmann  H Determination of the real size of an object on the fundus of the living eye [in German]. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1982;180 (4) 286- 289
PubMedArticle
91.
Klein  RDavis  MDMagli  YLSegal  PKlein  BEHubbard  L The Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Ophthalmology 1991;98 (7) 1128- 1134
PubMedArticle
92.
Laing  RASanstrom  MMBerrospi  ARLeibowitz  HM Changes in corneal endothelium as a function of age. Exp Eye Res 1976;22 (6) 587- 594
PubMedArticle
93.
Waring  GO  IIIBourne  WMEdelhauser  HFKenyon  KR The corneal endothelium: normal and pathologic structure and function. Ophthalmology 1982;89 (6) 531- 590
PubMedArticle
94.
Gartry  DSKerr Muir  MGMarshall  J Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy: 18-month follow-up. Ophthalmology 1992;99 (8) 1209- 1219
PubMedArticle
95.
Martin  DFParks  DJMellow  SD  et al.  Treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis with an intraocular sustained-release ganciclovir implant: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Arch Ophthalmol 1994;112 (12) 1531- 1539
PubMedArticle
96.
Spector  A The search for a solution to senile cataracts: Proctor Lecture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1984;25 (2) 130- 146
PubMed
97.
Macular Photocoagulation Study Group, Argon-laser photocoagulation for neovascular maculopathy: 5-year results from randomized clinical trials. Arch Ophthalmol 1991;109 (8) 1109- 1114[published correction appears in Arch Ophthalmol. 1992;110(6):761]
PubMedArticle
98.
Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study Group, Results of the Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study (EVS): a randomized trial of immediate vitrectomy and of intravenous antibiotics for the treatment of postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis. Arch Ophthalmol 1995;113 (12) 1479- 1496
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99.
Yablonski  MEZimmerman  TJWaltman  SRBecker  B Fluorophotometric study of effect of topical timolol on aqueous-humor dynamics. Exp Eye Res 1978;27 (2) 135- 142
PubMedArticle
100.
Scott  ABKennedy  RAStubbs  HA Botulinum: a toxin injection as a treatment for blepharospasm. Arch Ophthalmol 1985;103 (3) 347- 350
PubMedArticle
101.
Klein  BEKlein  RLinton  KL Prevalence of age-related lens opacities in a population: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology 1992;99 (4) 546- 552
PubMedArticle
102.
Adamis  APShima  DTTolentino  MJ  et al.  Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor prevents retinal ischemia-associated iris neovascularization in a nonhuman primate. Arch Ophthalmol 1996;114 (1) 66- 71
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Campbell  FM National bias: a comparison of citation practices by health professionals. Bull Med Libr Assoc 1990;78 (4) 376- 382
PubMed
104.
Link  AM US and non-US submissions. JAMA 1998;280 (3) 246- 247
PubMedArticle
Special Article
July 2007

The 100 Most Frequently Cited Articles in Ophthalmology Journals

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Division of Orthoptics and Visual Science, Aichi Shukutoku University, Faculty of Medical Welfare, Nagoya-shi, Japan (Dr Ohba); Department of Ophthalmology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medicine, Kagoshima-shi, Japan (Dr Nakao); Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Shukutoku University Clinic (Dr Isashiki) and Department of Language Communication, Graduate School of Communication (Ms Ohba), Aichi Shukutoku University, Nagakute-cho, Japan.

Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125(7):952-960. doi:10.1001/archopht.125.7.952
Abstract

We screened 46 ophthalmology journals to identify the most frequently cited articles using the Science Citation Index Expanded (1975 to 2006). The 100 most-cited articles were published in 13 journals, most in the Archives of Ophthalmology (n = 30), followed by Ophthalmology (n = 27) and the American Journal of Ophthalmology (n = 11), and originated from 10 countries, led by the United States (n = 86). The topics covered by these classic articles included epidemiology of age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma, description of new diseases including cytomegalovirus retinitis, optical coherence tomography, hypotensive medications in glaucoma, laser photocoagulation to treat diabetic retinopathy and subfoveal choroidal neovascularization, photorefractive surgery, and vitrectomy to treat idiopathic macular hole. The most frequently cited articles provide a historical perspective in the scientific advancement of ophthalmology during the last 3decades.

The number of citations an article receives after its publication reflects its effect on the scientific community.1 Publications in major journals and citations by other researchers are considered when decisions are made about grants, hiring, promotion, and tenure. Analysis of the most frequently cited articles may reveal the effect of works of colleagues and predecessors and provide a historical perspective on the scientific progress in the field of specialty. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the most frequently cited articles published in the last several decades in ophthalmology journals.

METHODS

We used the Science Citation Index Expanded provided by the ISI Web of Science (Institute for Scientific Information, Thomson Scientific, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania),2 accessed via the Internet (August 30, 2006), to determine the number of citations of articles published in 46 journals dedicated to ophthalmology and its subspecialties. Table 1 gives the 46 journals and the number of original articles and review articles examined; 15 major journals provided articles published from 1975 to the present. The 100 most frequently cited articles were selected to review publishing journal, authorship, institution, country of origin, type of article (epidemiologic study, clinical experience, randomized controlled trial, or basic science), and categories of research topics.

RESULTS

References for the 100 most frequently cited articles published in the last 3 decades in ophthalmology journals are listed in Table 2 according to the number of citations they received, in descending order. These articles have been cited steadily since publication, with a half-life of more than 10 years, as illustrated by a random selection of samples (Figure). The mean number of citations per article is 318. The most-cited article received 684 citations and the least-cited article received 238 citations. These articles were published from 1975 to 2002. The oldest articles were published in 1975, and the most recent article in 2002. Approximately half of the articles were published after 1990.

The 100 most frequently cited articles, or citation classics, in ophthalmology were published in 13 journals (Table 3), most in the Archives of Ophthalmology (n = 30), followed by Ophthalmology (n = 27), the American Journal of Ophthalmology (n = 11), Experimental Eye Research (n = 7), Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (n = 7), and Survey of Ophthalmology (n = 7). The articles were the products of multi-institutional collaboration (n = 8), multinational collaboration (n = 6), and individual institutions (n = 86). For simplicity, in articles from multicenter study groups, the name of the coordinator was defined as the country or institution of origin. The 100 citation classics originated from 10 countries: United States (n = 86), Australia (n = 3), United Kingdom (n = 3), Germany (n = 2), and Canada, Greece,Japan, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden (n = 1 each). The 100 articles were contributed by 41 institutions. Table 4 lists the leading 10 institutions, with 2 publications or more, led by The Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland (16 publications), followed by Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts (8 publications), and the University of Wisconsin in Madison (7 publications).

Fourteen articles were the products of multi-institutional or multinational studies with contributions from as many as 386 participants (Table 2). The remaining 86 articles were products of individual institutions, contributed by 263 authors, ranging from 1 to 12 authors per article (mean number of authors, 4). Table 5 gives the names of 28 authors of 2 or more of the 100 most-cited articles.

Table 6 summarizes the research field and topics covered by the 100 articles. Eleven articles reported epidemiological study results, 67 dealt with clinical experience, and 22 covered basic scienceresearch. Descriptive epidemiology reported the prevalence and risk factors of age-related macular degeneration (n = 2), glaucoma and ocular hypertension (n = 2), diabetic retinopathy (n = 2), and cataract or general blinding diseases (n = 5).

Articles in the clinical experience group were classified into 4 categories. The first category, clinical assessment, dealt with innovation of the visual acuity chart (n = 3); grading or scoring system, or electroretinography test standardization (n = 4); diagnostic imaging technologies including corneal endothelial specular microscopy and optical coherence tomography (n = 4); and retinal nerve fiber layer evaluation (n = 8). In the second category, 11 articles reported new information about clinical diseases including AIDS, idiopathic macular hole, and massive periretinal proliferation. The third category included 14 articles reporting medical therapies for glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma (n = 8), ganciclovir treatment for cytomegalovirus retinitis (n = 2), and botulinum toxin injection for blepharospasm (n = 2). In the fourth category, 23 articles reported laser and surgical treatments including photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (n = 4), laser correction of refractive errors (n = 6), vitrectomy for idiopathic macular hole (n = 1), trabeculectomy with adjunctive therapy (n = 5), and limbal autograft transplantation (n = 1).

Twenty-two articles were included in the category of basic science with which to achieve understanding of the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of eye disorders. This category included vascular endothelial growth factors, retinal ganglion cell apoptosis, corneal endothelial cell structure and function, and oxygen-induced retinopathy.

Of the 100 citation classics, 12 were products of randomized clinical trials (Table 2), including medications for intraocular pressure control in glaucoma, photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration, treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis with intraocular sustained-release ganciclovir implantation, vitrectomy for the treatment of postoperative endophthalmitis, and high-dose supplementation with ascorbic acid, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration. These were multi-institutional or multinational collaborative studies performed in the United States and Europe.

COMMENT

The number of times an article is cited in other articles is widely believed to reflect its effect and the quality of contribution by its authors. Some important articles may not be readily listed as citation classics because their substance has become such common knowledge after publication that their content is no longer cited. Other articles may be frequently cited because they have withstood the test of time. The articles published in the major journals dedicated to ophthalmology and its subspecialties were the target of this citation analysis. The pattern of citations varies among articles and, in the most-cited articles, the number of citations has remained so steady for 10 years or longer that the cumulative number of citations of a given article has increased with time after publication. The 100 citation classics are landmark articles with topics that have inspired clinical and basic research in the past 30 years. As the data show, some of the most important advances include descriptive epidemiology risk factor analysis of diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma and ocular hypertension; and diagnostic imaging technologies including optic coherence tomography, laser applications for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization and correction of refractive errors, and vitreous intervention for the treatment of idiopathic macular hole and proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Most cited classic articles originated in the United States, and only 6 articles originated in non-English-speaking countries. The findings seem consistent with the size of the US ophthalmic community and its wealth and scientific output, which dominate the international ophthalmic publications. There is, however, some evidence that US authors tend to quote articles from US journals and omit relevant references from journals published elsewhere.103 Reviewers from the United States are likely to evaluate papers submitted by US authors more favorably.104

This list of the most-cited articles in ophthalmology identifies seminal contributions and originators, indicates an increasing popularity of randomized clinical trials for acquisition of evidence-based information, and offers ophthalmology researchers hints about what makes an article a most frequently cited classic. To produce such an article, the ophthalmologist and his or her group must offer a medical or surgical innovation, worldwide influential clinical description, or discovery that has a long-lasting effect on the way we practice ophthalmology. Such a contribution should be published in the English language in a major journal.

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Article Information

Correspondence: Norio Ohba, MD, Division of Orthoptics and Visual Science, Aichi Shukutoku University, Faculty of Medical Welfare, Sakuragaoka 23, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya-shi 464-8671, Japan (ohbanm@gctv.ne.jp).

Submitted for Publication: November 26, 2006; final revision received November 26, 2006; accepted November 28, 2006.

Financial Disclosure: None reported.

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