[Skip to Content]
[Skip to Content Landing]
March 1970

Phototoxic Corneal and Lens OpacitiesIn Dogs Receiving a Fungicide, 2,6-Dichloro-4-Nitroaniline

Author Affiliations

Washington, DC; Boston
From the Bureau of Medicine, Office of New Drugs (Dr. Bernstein) and the Bureau of Science, Special Pharmacological Animal Laboratory (Drs. Curtis and Earl), Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC; and the Howe Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Harvard University Medical School and the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston (Dr. Kuwabara).

Arch Ophthalmol. 1970;83(3):336-348. doi:10.1001/archopht.1970.00990030338011

Corneal and lens opacities were observed in dogs following administration of a fungicide, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline (DCNA), for longer than six weeks. These changes were irreversible. In the anterior cornea, there were discrete areas of degeneration of the anterior corneal lamella associated with histiocytes containing lipid granules. The predominant effect upon the lens was edema around the anterior Y suture. These corneal and lens abnormalities could only be produced when the animal was exposed to outdoor or natural sunlight illumination. The concept of a phototoxic ocular drug reaction is relatively new in ophthalmology and would appear to deserve increasing attention in the future.

Whitten, L.K.; Filmer, D.B.; and Clare, N.T.:  A Photosensitizing Keratitis in Young Cattle Following the Use of Phenothiazine as an Anthelmintic , Aust Vet J 23:236-348 ( (Dec) ) 1947.
Cloud, T.M.; Hakim, R.; and Griffin, A.C.:  Photosensitization of the Eye With Methoxsalen: I. Acute Effects , Arch Ophthal 64:346-351 ( (Sept) ) 1960.Article
Freeman, R.G., and Troll, D.:  Hematoporphyrin Photosensitization of Rabbit Eye to Visible Light , Arch Ophthal 78:766-768 ( (Dec) ) 1967.Article
Wolkowicz, M.I.:  Central Serous Retinopathy: Clinical and Experimental Studies , Amer J Ophthal 42:531-545 ( (Oct) ) 1956.
McDonald, C.J.; Snell, R.S.; and Lerner, A.B.:  The Effect of Chlorpromazine on Oculocutaneous Pigmentation in the Guinea Pig , J Invest Derm 49:39-42 ( (July) ) 1967.Article
Cloud, T.M.; Hakim, R.; and Griffin, A.C.:  Photosensitization of the Eye With Methoxsalen: II. Chronic Effects , Arch Ophthal 66:689-694 ( (Nov) ) 1961.Article
Serrone, D.M., et al:  Comparative Toxicology of 2,6-Dichloro-4 Nitroaniline in Rats and Rhesus Monkeys , abstracted, Toxic Appl Pharmacol 10:404 ( (March) ) 1967.
Johnston, C.; Woodard, G.; and Cranin, M.:  Safety Evaluation of 2,6-Dichloro-4-Nitroaniline in Laboratory Animals , abstracted, Toxic Appl Pharmacol 12:314 ( (March) ) 1968.
Baer, R., and Harber, L.:  Photosensitivity Induced by Drugs , JAMA 192:989-990 ( (June) ) 1965.Article
Richards, R.D.; Schocket, S.S.; and Michaels, M.: Acid Phosphatase in Lens Epithelium of Rabbits After X Irradiation, to be published.
Ogino, S., and Yasukura, K.:  Biochemical Studies on Cataracts: VI. Production of Cataracts in Guinea Pigs With Dinitrophenol , Amer J Ophthal 43:936-946, 1957.
Máté, C.; Ryan, A.J.; and Wright, S.E.:  Metabolism of Some 4-Nitroaniline Derivatives in the Rat , Food Cosmet Toxic 5:657-663 ( (Nov) ) 1967.Article
Eberts, F.S., Jr.:  Fate of Botran in Rats and Man , Chem Abstracts 68: (11098 g) , p 1123, 1968.
Deichman, W.B., and Radomski, J.L.:  Retention of Pesticides in Human Adipose Tissue , Industr Med Surg 37:218-219 ( (March) ) 1968.