[Skip to Content]
[Skip to Content Landing]
January 1971

Reduction of Ocular Torque by Medial Rectus Recession

Author Affiliations

Iowa City
From the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Iowa, College of Medicine, Iowa City.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1971;85(1):13-17. doi:10.1001/archopht.1971.00990050015003

A prevalent concept in strabismus surgery is that excessive recessions cripple an extraocular muscle because of a decrease in mechanical advantage. The mathematical analysis presented, coupled with length-tension diagrams, supports my hypothesis that gross underactions of muscles excessively recessed are due primarily to a marked decrease in the force of contraction rather than a marked loss in mechanical advantage.

Tour RL, Asbury T:  Overcorrection of esotropia: Following bilateral 5-mm medial rectus recession . Amer J Ophthal 45:644-653, 1958.
Boeder P:  The co-operation of extraocular muscles . Amer J Ophthal 51:469-481, 1961.
Fischer FP:  Ueber die Verwendung von Kopfbewegungen beim Umhersehen . Graefe Arch Klin Exp Ophthal 113:394-416, 1924.Article
Starling EH, Evans CL: Principles of Human Physiology , ed 14. Dawson H, Eggleton MG (eds), Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1968, pp 820-824.
Bahler AS, Fales JT, Zierler KL:  The dynamic properties of mammalian skeletal muscle . J Gen Physiol 51:369-384, 1968.Article
Schottelius BA, Thomson JD, Hines HM:  Capacity of skeletal muscle to develop isometric tension after prolonged shortening . Amer J Physiol 179:491-494, 1954.
Robinson DA, O'Meara DM, Scott AB, et al:  Mechanical components of human eye movements . J Appl Physiol 26:548-553, 1969.