[Skip to Content]
[Skip to Content Landing]
Article
June 1972

The Effects of the Sympathetic Nervous System on AccommodationI. Beta Sympathetic Nervous System

Author Affiliations

New York
From the Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1972;87(6):668-674. doi:10.1001/archopht.1972.01000020670011
Abstract

The effects of beta sympathetic drugs on positive accommodation (accommodation for near vision) were studied in vervet monkeys. Isoproterenol, a beta sympathetic stimulator, depressed the positive accommodation function. It was not a complete antagonist since 3 to 4 diopters of accommodation remained. Only atropine, a parasympathetic blocker, could abolish these 3 to 4 D as well as the entire function. In many of the experimental animals, positive accommodation function was biphasic. The initial component had a flatter slope, lower amplitude, and lower threshold of stimulation than the second. The transition point of the components was between 2 and 4 D. Beta sympathetic stimulation appeared to abolish selectively the second component while parasympathetic inhibition abolished both components. It appeared that peripherally, parasympathetic inhibition was a more potent and thus more important mechanism in antagonizing positive accommodation than beta sympathetic stimulation.

References
1.
Bender MB, Weinstein EA:  Functional representation in the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei . Arch Neurol Psychiat 49:98-106, 1943.Article
2.
Crosby E, Humphrey T, Lauer E: Correlative Anatomy of the Nervous System , New York, Macmillan Co, 1962, pp 243-244.
3.
Pitts D:  Accommodation from electrical stimulation . Arch Amer Acad Optom 44:769-775, 1967.Article
4.
Goodman L, Gilman A: The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics , ed 4. New York, Macmillan Co, 1970, pp 478-523, 549-584, 565-570.
5.
Nickerson M:  Adrenergic mediators . Invest Ophthal 4:1085-1094, 1965.
6.
Morat JP, Doyon M:  Le grand sympathique, nerf de l'accommodation pour la vision des objets elóinges . Ann Oeulist 106:28-30, 1891.
7.
Cogan D:  Accommodation and the autonomic nervous system . Arch Ophthal 18:739-766, 1937.Article
8.
Olmstead JMD, Morgan MW Jr:  The influence of the cervical sympathetic nerve on the lens of the eye . Amer J Physiol 133:720-723, 1941.
9.
Tornqvist G:  Effect of cervical sympathetic stimulation on accommodation in monkeys . Acta Physiol Scand 67:363-372, 1966.Article
10.
Van Alphen GWHM, Kern R, Robinette SL:  Adrenergic receptors of the intraocular muscles: Comparison to cat, rabbit, and monkey . Arch Ophthal 74:253-259, 1965.Article
11.
Morgan MW Jr:  A new theory for the control of accommodation . Arch Amer Acad Optom 23:87-93, 1946.
12.
Fleming DG, Hall JL:  Autonomic innervation to the ciliary body . Amer J Ophthal 48:287-293, 1959.
13.
Chin NB, Ishikawa S, Lappin H, et al:  Accommodation in monkeys induced by midbrain stimulation . Invest Ophthal 7:386-396, 1968.
14.
Tagawa S, Fukae K, Nonaka T, et al:  Response of ciliary muscle to adrenergic agents in regard to alpha and beta receptors . Jap J Ophthal 11:227-232, 1967
15.
Ishikawa T:  Fine structure of the human ciliary muscle . Invest Ophthal 1:587-608, 1962.
16.
Shigekazu UGA:  Electron microscopic studies of motor nerve endings in the ciliary muscle of human and monkey eyes . Jap J Ophthal 11:121-132, 1967.
17.
Biggs RD, Alpern M, Bennett DR:  The effect of sympathomimetic drugs upon the amplitude of accommodation . Amer J Ophthal 48:169-172, 1959.
18.
Törnqvist G:  The relative importance of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems for accommodation . Invest Ophthal 6:612-617, 1967.
19.
Dahlstrom A, Fuxe K, Hillayi N, et al:  Adrenergic mechanisms in the pupillary light reflex pathway . Acta Physiol Scand 62:119-124, 1964.Article
×